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Frequently Asked Questions at 3R Tiles

General Information

What about the oil canning of metal panels ?

The metal panel systems distributed by 3R Tiles inc. are available with or without stiffening ribs reinforcement. In both cases, some oil canning may occur on the surface. This is primarily related to the physical constraints inherent to the raw material, steel or aluminum. Oil canning can also be aggravated by thermal expansion, poor installation and uneven leveling of the supporting surface.

During factory manufacturing of metal panels distributed by 3R Tiles inc., the material is systematically rectified by in-line leveling equipment right before the profile forming process. Subsequent oil canning of the metal surface is essentially an aesthetic consideration and does not result from a flaw in the panel manufacturing process.

To reduce the risk of oil canning in metal panels, 3R Tiles inc. recommends the following precautions:

  • Transport, handle and store the panels in accordance with the regulations set out in the 3R Tiles inc. Job Site Handling Manual
  • Level the metal panels supporting surface
  • Avoid applying too much pressure to the joint between panels during installation
  • Provide expansion space for panels where the trim systems are connected
  • Limit the length of metal panels to 20 feet as much as possible (for some panel models, connecting plates are available)
  • Fasten the screws perpendicular to the panel surface and avoid excessive screw insertion
  • Promote the use of ribs and panel patterns with uneven surfaces

What are the handling and stockage procedures for metal panels ?

To receive the complete PDF document with figures, contact us.


Both painted and unpainted products should be kept dry. Abrasion, which appears as scuff marks, can result when panels flex during loading or unloading. Long bundles should be lifted with equipment that supports most of the panel length (see Receiving section). Bundles should be rigidly packaged with crosswise and lengthwise blocking. Truck loading should insure that panel bundles are protected from contact with other items, such as structural components. Carriers must be aware of safety requirements and obey all local, state and federal laws, including proper securing of loads. When lifting bundles with a forklift, the forks must be a minimum of five feet apart.

Potential problems that can occur if proper procedures are not followed

Panel scuffing, buckling, corrosion or wetness that can lead to corrosion during job site storage.


Bundles of panels are typically unloaded either by forklift or crane. In either case, panels in bundles should be lifted at their center of gravity, and the bundle should be supported along the length. Crates should never be turned over on their sides for lifting. Never ride on the crates that are being transported.

Forklift unloading and handling

Forks must be spread a minimum of five feet.

The allowable overhang depends on the strength of the panels in the bundle.

When lifting beneath the load, one forklift can be used. Longer bundles will require additional forklifts so no more than the specified length overhangs at either side of the forks. Spreader bar must be secured to forklift.

A forklift can also be used to raise bundles longer than the specified maximum when they are suspended from a spreader bar.

Forks should not extend beneath the load so as to damage material in front of the load when the bundle is placed.

Drive slowly over uneven terrain to prevent panel buckling.

Do not transport open bundles.

Crane unloading and handling

When lifting bundles with a crane, nylon straps at least 2 inches wide should be used. Never use wire rope slings or chains.

Whenever possible, place the nylon straps beside the wooden frames that surround the bundle. The nylon straps must not damage the panels. Use spreader planks when required beneath and above the bundle to protect the panels. The plank at the top of the bundle is especially important if a choker is used.

Lift points must be no farther apart than either the value specified in Table 1 or the length of each suspending cable, whichever is less.

A spreader bar should be used if the distance between the outer pick points is greater than the length of the cable.

Use a spreader bar light enough so that the crane can lift the combined weight of the bundle and the spreader bar. Several slings can be supported by a single spreader bar.


Panel bundles must be inspected when received at the job site. Examine for mechanical damage, rips and tears in the packaging and the presence of water. Rips and tears in the paper wrapping must be repaired using water-resistant tape. If water is present in bundles of tightly stacked panels, the panels must be separated, wiped dry with a clean cloth and stacked with space between the panels so air can circulate and finish the drying process. Wet panels should also be inspected for evidence of blisters or corrosion. If found, these conditions should be noted on the receiving documents and reported to the panel supplier.

Potential problems that can occur if proper procedures are not followed

Panel scuffing, buckling, bending, corrosion or wetness that can lead to corrosion during job site storage.


The best way to reduce the possibility of damage during storage is to minimize the storage time. Other steps are designed to reduce the intrusion of water from rain, snow or condensation. A primary objective is to keep both painted and unpainted panels dry. Storage under roof is always preferable. Store away from materials that may contaminate the surface (such as diesel oil, paint, grease) and away from site traffic.

If panels must be stored outdoors:

  • Store in a level area away from construction activities to minimize the number of movements.
  • Bundles stored on the ground must be placed on a plastic ground cover to minimize condensation of water from the ground on the panels.
  • Bundles must be raised several inches above the plastic ground sheet to avoid contact with puddles and to allow for air circulation.
  • Wet or treated lumber must not come in contact with the bundles.
  • The panels must be stored at an angle to promote drainage, taking care that the bundle is properly supported at each crosswise runner along its length.
  • The bundle must be completely sheltered with a loose-fitting, waterproof tarp to protect the bundle from rain or snow while allowing for air circulation and drying of condensed water. The tarp also shades the bundle from direct sunlight, which helps to moderate temperature extremes and UV damage to protective masking.
  • Though it may seem like a good idea to wrap bundles in tightly sealed plastic wrap, this practice should be avoided because moisture can be trapped inside.

If bundles of nested panels become wet, sheets should be separated, wiped with a clean cloth without delay and then placed so that air circulation completes the drying process. This is true for both painted and unpainted panels. When storing building panels, keep in mind that you are preserving both the integrity of the panels and the ability of the protective masking to release easily and with no residue after installation.

Potential problems that can occur if proper procedures are not followed

Coatings on unpainted materials may deteriorate, resulting in non-uniform appearance that cannot be reversed. Prolonged exposure of bundled, prepainted panels to wet conditions can cause paint blistering or substrate corrosion. Adhesion of strippable film will increase over time and can cause removal problems. If panels are exposed to extreme heat or extensive solar radiation during storage or after installation, the strippable film may be very difficult to remove, and a residue may be left behind. In extreme cases, the film may be impossible to remove.

Handling Panels on the Job Site

Individual panels should be lifted vertically by the seam. Do not pick up panels by the ends. If the panel is over 10 feet long, lift it with two or more people on one side to prevent buckling. Unpainted panels should be handled and installed using clean, dry gloves. Remove strippable film as soon after installation as possible. Caution! The masking is a translucent plastic film that may not be readily apparent. Be sure that it is removed from all panels and accessories. Exercise extreme caution when handling panels on windy days. Panels can catch the wind and knock a worker down, even on the ground.

Potential problems that can occur if proper procedures are not followed

Panels may buckle. Unpainted panels will show fingerprints if gloves are not worn. Masking may be difficult or impossible to remove. Workers may be injured.

Crane Unloading and Handling Procedure

The preferred method for handling bundles of flat sheets is with the use of a below-the-hook lifting device. The material is supported uniformly along the long edges of load. Nylon slings can also be used so long as the material is adequately protected where the slings contact the load. The success of this point-loading method is dependent on the soundness of the runners that support the load.

Forklift Unloading and Handling Procedure

Although less desirable, forklifts must be used sometimes because an overhead crane is not available or material must be moved from one crane bay to another. A forklift with long forks that support at least 66% of the skid length can be used to move material so long as the driver is careful to support the material uniformly along the length and width of the forks and avoid damaging material on the narrow edge when approaching the load. Handling long skids of material with short forks is more problematic and should be avoided. Unfortunately, pushing or pulling long skids is common. Of the two methods, pushing the skid is preferable, but the skid and the material are often damaged. Relatively short skids less than 12 feet long can be safely transported by approaching the load from the long side, so long as the forks are long enough to support all of the lengthwise runners. Forks must be spread so the load is stable and supported evenly. For example, for a 12-foot long skid, the forks would be spread to 4 feet wide, with a 4-foot overhang on each side. To lift a 10-foot long skid, the forks would be spread to 4 feet wide with a 3-foot overhang on each side. When skids of flat sheets are being readied for shipment, the hold-down straps should be placed in a vertical line with the cross-wise runners as shown in Figure A6 to prevent damaging the edges of the sheets when the straps are tightened.

What makes 3R Tiles distinctive in architectural creativity ?

Aside from the quality of the material and the manufacturing factory process, Tuiles 3R wanted to offer its customers the ability to customize the architecture of any building by combining multiple shapes, patterns of poses and colours (see Special projects section).

In addition to reproduce with fidelity the metal roofs of old style, Tuiles 3R products allow unique contemporary design creations, without compromising the technical requirements of strength and sealing.

It is thus possible to blend several models of tiles on a same building by varying shades of colors, geometric shapes, dimensions of identical parts as well as the installation guidelines.

Exterior wall (wall covering, siding, attic) tiles may very well harmonize with other materials such as wood, brick, stone and glass.

These wall tiles can also be installed on walls or interior architectural structures to create a bold and unique design.

How PVDF Kynar 500® finish provides superior performance on metal roof and siding ?

Tuiles 3R offers you products in steel and aluminum painted with PVDF that provide superior durability and optimal resistance to cleaning of graffiti on sidings.

KYNAR 500® and HYLAR 5000® (PVDF) surface finishing products are currently the best treatment products for the siding and metal roof in aluminium and steel. All products from Atas International, Inc., and tile shapes of 3R Tiles are painted with PVDF.

Comparative tests with other finishing products have shown that the PVDF (KYNAR 500® / HYLAR® 5000) achieve better results at the level of resistance to UV rays, abrasion, fading, chemicals, solvents. This treatment also allows to clean stains and graffiti without leaving visible traces or damage the coating.

KYNAR 500® and HYLAR 5000® are compounds of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF). PVDF is also used and tested in multiple industrial applications where the product is exposed to extreme variations in temperature as well as multiple chemical corrosive elements.

The comparative strength of the surface treatment of PVDF Kynar 500® was assessed in laboratory tests and exterior exposition to climatic conditions.. Among the results, PVDF has much better resisted to climate exposition and with testing solvent cleaning compared to Acrylic and Silicone-Polyester based products.


Photo above: Color changing of various paint finishes when exposed to climate condition.


Photo above: Friction resistance test using solvent cleaner products.


Dry film thickness: ASTM D 1005, ASTM D 1400, ASTM D 4138 or ASTM D 5796
Specular Gloss: ASTM D 523
Pencil Hardness: ASTM D 3363
T-Bend Flexibility: ASTM D 4145
Mandrel Bend Flexibility: ASTM D 522
Impact Resistance: ASTM D 2794
Adhesion: ASTM D 3359
Water Immersion Resistance: ASTM D 870
Abrasion Resistance: ASTM D 968
Acid Resistance: ASTM D 1308
Acid Rain Resistance (Kesternich): ASTM G 87 or DIN 50018
Salt Spray: ASTM B 117
Cyclic Salt Spray: ASTM D 5894 and ASTM D 5487
Humidity Resistance: ASTM D 2247
Accelerated Weathering: ASTM D 822 and ASTM G 155, ASTM G 151 or ASTM G 153
Color Retention, Florida Exposure: ASTM D 2244
Chalking Resistance: ASTM D 4214
Cleveland Condensing Cabinet: ASTM D 4585
Cure Test, MEK Resistance: ASTM D 5402
Alkali Resistance, Sodium Hydroxide: ASTM D 1308, Procedure 7.2
Flame Spread Rating: ASTM E 84
Organic coatings meet requirements of AAMA 2605 when applied to aluminum.

Metal roof tiles

What return on investments could you expect with a metal roofing ?

The renovation of your roof is a major work that provides one of the best return on investment. According to the Institute of Canadian evaluators, average performance lies between 50% and 80% recovery of the investment at resale. As this statistic includes the asphalt shingle, whose life is quite limited, it is clear that metal roofing will provide superior performance and that this performance will continue long after laying. The installation of metal tiles on an outside wall is also an excellent sustainable investment (siding, attic).

An asphalt shingle roof will have a limited lifetime and you will probably need to change it at least once, if not more. The metal roof will not be changed and lasting strength and appearance will allow you to retrieve an important part of your investment on a sale.

What features heritage roofing tiles (Standing Seam, Canadian style, Wood casing tile) ?

Tuiles 3R’s expertise is also in the manufacture of traditional metal roofing tiles according to the original techniques which are often required by urban planning and heritage preservation committees in some municipalities.

Standing Seam tile on roofing

Not to be confused with some profiles sold in store, the Standing Seam tile is not a profile but indeed a tile. The superposition of the tiles along the slope, combined with pinching of the joint system provides a solidity and greater expansion flexibility during changes of temperature (see Metal roofing tiles section)

Agrafe debout schéma pliAgrafe debout schéma pli 2

Canadian style tile

The installation of the Canadian style tiles to the roof dates from the late 16th century. This type of roof then known great popularity between the years 1750 to 1850. This technique was developed to solve the problems of resistance of the welded plates from older designs.

The installation of a Canadian style roof requires a slope of at least 15 degrees. Today, the use of waterproof membranes and sealants improve the quality of these roofs. Otherwise, it can be installed on the attic (Gables) and vertical walls. Over time, the installation process is also improved. Contemporary pattern of poses, the installation of the tiles on the roof angle prevents ingress of water at the level of the seals. Furthermore, the addition of a deck’s departure provides a better seal at the base of the slope (see Metal roofing tiles section).

Canadienne Hébert 1

Casing style tile

This very old roofing technique would have been imported from Europe around 1800. Several of these roofs are still existing today, due to the high efficiency of the installation process. We find today different industrial products that mimic the pattern of the tile to stick, but their assembly does not reach the aesthetic quality and the degree of effectiveness of the original technique.

The installation of a Casing tile roof requires a slope of at least 15 degrees. Today, the use of waterproof membranes and sealants improve the quality of these roofs. At Tuiles 3R, we recommend the use of the baton trapezoid-shaped wood, because its closer base provides a space to absorb the expansion of the metal, thereby preventing its deformation (see Metal roofing tiles section).

(VA) Catalogue technical file casing P2 (imperial) 05-03-13Tôle baguette_guide_tech03_Page_16 nettoyée 2Tôle baguette_guide_tech03_Page_16 nettoyée

What is the advantage of patented Dutch Seam fastener ?

One of the problems related to the installation of metal (profile) panels on roofs and sidings is the oil canning. When the temperature changes, the metal panel expands and shrinks, which is normal. Most of the panels are screwed directly on the bridging of the roof along their length. For this reason, dilation could increase the oil canning. The oil canning is apparent and it promotes the formation of micro-cracks in the finish treatment. This problem accelerates ageing of the roof and degrades its appearance.

To reduce this problem, Tuiles 3R offers the Dutch Seam panel, which is equipped with a patented fasteners hidden sliding system. Through this mechanism, panel slides into the attachment system mounted on the roof or siding, allowing the panel to expand and contract freely during changes of temperature. Dutch Seam is available in steel and aluminum and its basis of PVDF (Kynar 500) surface treatment offers the best durability on the market. Dutch Seam can be installed on roofs as on sidings and is available in 40 colours.
Patented fasteners for absorption of the expansion of the panels (see Metal roofing tiles section).

   Dutch Seam attaches brevetée 1

What makes metal roof far beyond asphalt shingle ?

The metal roofing covered most of our houses before World War II. Our most beautiful ancestral homes and our heritage churches are often covered with metallic roofings. During the war, the metal was requisitioned. The asphalt shingles, more economical, came in the following decades. However, its lifespan is much shorter, making it a product of temporary and more polluting facility.

The shingles are not or little recycled. Sensitive to UV light, they emit solvents in air, in particular under exposure to the sun. Most often black, they contribute to heat islands, i.e. the increase in temperatures in urban areas.

On the other hand, steel is a recyclable material at the end of life, which will be very long.

The Tuiles 3R metal roofing tiles have an interlocking system that prevents buckling of the roof by expansion and contraction during temperature changes. The system allows the tiles to move without buckling or pull on the screws. Your roof will retain its consistency and its seal despite the years (see Metal roofing tiles section)

How plastic film improves metal tile and panel protection ?

Tuiles 3R pays particular attention to the packaging of its products for its customers and construction site delivery. In our factory, each tile is packaged individually. The tiles are then arranged in several boxes in order to facilitate their handling on site as well as their protection.

Each metal panel is covered with plastic film to protect the surface finish to the stage of the installation.

Protection produits 1 Atas

What about Lightning and Steel Roofing ?

When a homeowner is considering the purchase of a steel roof a common question is whether it will increase the risk of a lightning strike. After all, steel is highly conductive, just like the materials used in lightning rods, so doesn’t it stand to reason that the steel roof will attract lightning?

The short answer is, NO, steel roofing will NOT increase the risk of a lightning strike in any way.

For all intents and purposes, nothing ‘attracts’ lightning. Lightning occurs on too large of a scale to be influenced by small objects on the ground, including steel roofs. The location of the thunderstorm overhead alone determines where lightning will hit the ground. A lightning bolt that is several miles long, generated by a cloud that is more than 6 to 10 miles high, is not going to be influenced by an object the size of your house.

The descending stepped leader of a lightning bolt doesn’t ‘decide what to strike’ until it is very close to the ground. When a cloud-to-ground lightning channel is forming, it is going to strike the ground where the opposing charges are greatest, directly underneath the storm’s most electrically active region. If you are standing at that exact location, you will be hit, even if there’s no metal within miles! Conversely, if you are farther than 500 feet from that location, you could wave your golf club or umbrella high in the air, but you won’t draw the lightning away, even slightly, from striking where it’s going to strike.

Steel does conduct electricity, but steel roofs don’t attract lightning or increase the probability of a lightning strike.

Four factors affect the probability of a lightning strike:

• Topography: a structure located on a mountain or hill has a higher probability of a strike than one in a field.

• Structure size and height: a tall structure or one that covers a great deal of ground has a higher probability of a strike than a short or small building.

• Relative location in relation to taller structures: a small, short building near a taller structure has a lower probability of strike than the taller structure.

• Severity and frequency of thunderstorms in the structure’s vicinity. However, on occasion, lightning does strike a house. If your home were hit, the steel roofing would disperse the energy safely through the structure. Since steel roofing isn’t combustible or flammable, it’s a low risk and desirable roofing option where severe weather is concerned — especially for lightning.

Source: Canadian Sheet Steel Building Institute (CSSBI). October 2015.

What about Sound Emission of Metal Roofing ?

Isn’t a metal roof noisy? It is one of the most frequently asked questions about metal roofing.

The theory that a metal roof is “noisy” stems from the memory of a barn, or a patio awning, where there is nothing between an individual and the roof, except air. The more adept one becomes at answering this question, no a metal roof isn’t noisy.

The sound of rain pattering on a rooftop is not necessarily classified as noise. Noise is defined by Webster’s dictionary as Sound or a sound that is loud, disagreeable, or unwanted. Sound or sound pressure is measured in units known as decibels (dB). The softest sound the human ear can detect is measured at 0 dB, while the loudest sound is registered at more than 175 dB. Existing standards indicate that sound levels should not surpass 70 dB if general conversation is desired; whereas, frequent exposure to levels exceeding 85 dB will impair an individual’s hearing.

Although this is not a technical paper on acoustical concepts, it bears mention that the human ear does not distinguish variations in sound until the sound pressure level has been increased by 8 dB. A study was conducted by The Acoustic Group at the University of Luleå, Sweden, to determine the amount of sound emitted when rain falls on various roofing materials. The study concluded that metal did not register a significantly higher sound level than shingle. In fact, the sound differential between shingle and metal was only 6 dB.

The variation of sound pressure, as it relates to rain falling on a metal roof, is dependent upon various factors. The most important factor relates to the method of construction. A metal roof installed over open framing will register a louder sound than panels that are installed over a solid roof deck. The roof deck literally absorbs or muffles the sound. It is with few exceptions that most metal roofing products on the market today are installed with some form of underlayment material that absorbs sound.

Sound Emission of Metal Roofing

Source: Atas International, Inc.

Metal siding tiles

What does 3R Tiles “in relief effect” siding tile means ?

Tiles 3R offers two distinct styles of wall tiles (siding):

1. Siding tile with relief effect

The manufacture process of this tile gives it a more pronounced effect of relief on siding.

Tuile relief carrée 1

2. Siding tile without relief effect

The manufacture process of this tile gives it an effect without relief.

Tuile carrée sans relief 1

* Technically, all 3R roofing tiles can be installed as a siding. Their production being planned to resist the demands of roofs, the vertical installation presents no problem. However, Tuiles 3R offers tiles whose manufacture is planned specifically for wall installation (siding, attic). Ask our representatives for more information.

What is the distinctive choice 3R Tiles offers in perforated panels ?

Tuiles 3R offers you the widest choice of metal panels perforated on the market. Now, you are no longer limited in selection of products perforated for your architectural projects. The panels perforated of Atas International are grade aluminum. 032, 040 and .050. They are available in ten of configurations and six patterns of standard perforations (transparency of 23% to 51%). Perforation tailor-made schemes can also be manufactured. Factory aluminum foil is first perforated, then formed and finally processed and painted with PVDF KYNAR 500® or HYLAR 5000®. The color covers the inside of the walls of the holes. The back of the panel is treated and painted in primer or the same color as the front, on request.

All these configurations of panels are available in different patterns of holes (see Metal siding tiles section).

Tuiles 3R inc. ATAS Panneaux perforés 28-10-13

See our metal tiles

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